History

Chair: Yamin Xu

Professor: Douglas R. Egerton, Edward H. Judge, John W. Langdon, Robert E. Scully, S.J.

Associate Professor: Bruce A. Erickson, Leigh Fought, Godriver Odhiambo, Holly A. Rine, Yamin Xu, Robert W. Zens

Assistant Professor: Michael A. Guzik,S.J.

Adjunct Faculty: Karl R. Alexander, William S. Dolan, S.J., Barrett Esworthy, Joseph Guiffrida, Jeffrey Hoerl, Thomas Magnarelli, Melinda Reeder, John Sheehan, Todd Sundell

Professor Emerita: Carolyn T. Bashaw, Barbara J. Blaszak

Professor Emeritus: William Bosch, S.J., Mark Jackson, William J. Telesca

Those who wish to evaluate the complex and challenging issues of the present must seek the perspective conferred by a sound and critical knowledge of the past. History imparts this knowledge, thereby helping the student to understand contemporary affairs and to analyze and evaluate evidence. History also forms part of the foundation of a liberal education by providing essential background for the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and pre-professional disciplines.

For its majors, the history department offers a broad program of courses designed to discipline and develop the mind. When combined with appropriate courses in other fields, this program prepares history majors for careers in law, government service, management and administration, library science, education and journalism. A departmental honors program offers special opportunities for independent work to advanced students.

For history majors who wish to become certified teachers, the department also offers special programs which incorporate courses in education.

Departmental Student Learning Outcomes 

Historical processes: Students will Analyze global/historical processes as related to one another and to historical change.

Historical understanding: Students will Examine history as human activities and accomplishments in the past for which there is evidence and history as what historians have written about those activities and accomplishments using the evidence

Critical reading: Students will Evaluate scholarly sources analytically to ascertain their main themes and arguments.

Methodology: Students will Conduct historical research by evaluating primary and secondary published and archival sources appropriate to the subject.

Communication: Students will Present the results of their research and study in clear and properly documented papers and oral presentations and discussions.

Perspective: Students will Apply a historical perspective to issues concerning the diversity of human experience.

Internship Program (HST 490 Internship)

The history department offers a wide variety of internships with such organizations as the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian Institution, the United States Senate, the New York State Assembly, the Erie Canal Museum, the National Women’s Hall of Fame and Sainte Marie Among the Iroquois living history museum. These internships integrate classroom learning with practical work experiences in non-academic settings; they sometimes lead to offers of employment following graduation.

Student Learning Outcomes in History

Students who graduate from this program will be able to:

World history
Analyze global/historical processes as related to one another and to historical change
 
Human activities and accomplishments
Understand history as human activities and accomplishments in the past for which there is evidence and history as what historians have written about those activities and accomplishments using the evidence
 
Critical reading
Evaluate scholarly sources analytically to ascertain their main themes and arguments.
 
Methodology
Conduct historical research by evaluating primary and secondary published and archival sources appropriate to the subject.
 
Perspective
Apply a historical perspective to issues concerning the diversity of human experience.
 
Communication
Present the results of their research and study in clear and properly documented papers and oral presentations and discussions.

History (HST)

HST 110. World Civilization I. 3 Credit Hours.

This course surveys the most important developments, issues, accomplishments and problems of World civilizations, provides an introduction to the study of African, Asian, European, Islamic, Native American, and Latin American civilizations, and discusses the relationships among these civilizations to the eighteenth century.

HST 110L. Learning Strategies Lab. 1 Credit Hour.

The learning strategies course is designed to develop active learning skills and to provide supplemental instruction for the HST 110 course. The overall goals of the course are to teach students how to organize their approach to acquiring knowledge and to approach studying as an active thinking process. Students will learn how to apply the learning strategies within the context of the history course content. Emphasis will be placed on applying learning theory to the mastery of course content and on helping students to identify their own personal learning style. Preference given to students participating in the curricular learning community.

Corequisite: HST 110.

HST 111. World Civilization II. 3 Credit Hours.

This course surveys the most important developments, issues, accomplishments and problems of World civilizations since the eighteenth century and examines the development of African, Asian, European, Islamic, Native American and Latin American civilizations since the eighteenth century. A research paper is required of all students.

HST 111L. Learning Strategies Lab. 1 Credit Hour.

The learning strategies course is designed to develop active learning skills and to provide supplemental instruction for the HST 111 course. The overall goals of the course are to teach students how to organize their approach to acquiring knowledge and to approach studying as an active thinking process. Students will learn how to apply the learning strategies within the context of the history course content. Emphasis will be placed on applying learning theory to the mastery of course content and on helping students to identify their own personal learning style. Preference given to students participating in the curricular learning community.

Corequisite: HST 111.

HST 211. American History Survey I. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is abroad survey of key patterns,events, and the history of peoples in America from the eve of European settlement to 1765. It covers Native American life and the effects of English settlement, the rise of African slavery, the colonial and Revolutionary periods, the age of antebellum reform, antislavery and women's rights, the crisis of union, and the Civil War. Readings, research and discussion.

HST 212. American History Survey II. 3 Credit Hours.

A survey of United States history from the era of Reconstruction to the present. Topics include Reconstruction and the struggles for American democracy, immigration, the rise of the industrial order and the response to it by farmers and workers, Populism and Progressivism, women's suffrage and the modern women's movement, the New Deal both World Wars, the Cold War and Vietnam, the Civil Rights movement, and the post-Cold War era. Readings, research and discussion.

HST 301. Methods of Historical Research. 3 Credit Hours.

A detailed analysis of historical methodology and techniques of research, required of all history majors. The course will provide training in analytical reading, evaluation of evidence, interpretation of quantitative data, methods of avoiding historical fallacies and the selection of a mentor and topic for HST 302.

Prerequisites: HST 110 or HST 111 or their equivalents, HST 211 or its equivalent, and at least one 300-level HST elective.

HST 302. Historical Research and Writing. 3 Credit Hours.

A major research project done in seminar and private study under an instructor's direction. Required of all history majors.

Prerequisite: HST 301.

HST 309. Tudor-Stuart Britain and Ireland. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to introduce student to the "New British History," which emphasizes the importance and interactions of all four nations of the "British Isles," namely: England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. We will examine the economic and social, political and military, religious and cultural history of these four nations during the Tudor and Stuart periods, approximately 1485 to 1714. Among other areas of interest, we will discuss the impact of the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the age of overseas exploration and settlement, as well as the various attempts of the dominant nation--England--to exert control over its Celtic neighbors, and their various responses.

HST 310. Race and Reconstruction in America. 3 Credit Hours.

Taking as a starting point the historical period, 1864-1901, designated as the Reconstruction era in the United States, this course will explore the effect of the Civil War and efforts to rebuild the shattered republic while forging a more egalitarian Union. We will also explore the legacies of both the War and of Reconstruction, and their affect upon our understanding of race in the South and in the country as a whole. As we explore the events, debates, politics, and personalities that mark this period, we will also draw upon the imaginative works of authors ranging from Frederick Douglass, Mark Twain, and W.E.B. Du Bois to Stephen Crane, Frances Harper, and Louisa May Alcott. As the country contends with the political and cultural fallout that attends African American citizenship, these writers will represent race sometimes as a "problem" for the country and sometimes as a source of power and pride. Finally, we will discuss the extent to which we are still, in twenty-first century America, engaged in acts of Reconstruction.

HST 314. Age of Renaissance/Reformation. 3 Credit Hours.

A survey of European history between the 14th and 17th centuries, the course examines the political situation in Western Europe, with special emphasis on the unique cultural achievements of the Renaissance and on the religious dimensions of the Reformation.

HST 316. History of American Law. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will weave together the history of legal and constitutional thought with the history of law's part in social and political change and in everyday life. It will consider a wide variety of texts and events but will concentrate on: colonial antecedents; revolution and constitution making; the golden age of American law; courts and the rise of industrial capitalism; Black slavery and freedom; achievements and limits of liberal legal reform; the experience of women's labor and civil rights movements; and legal realism and the rise of the administrative state.

Cross-listed Courses: LGS 316

HST 319. United States Colonial History. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will examine the social, cultural, economic and political consequences of European colonization of North America from 1492 to 1763. Placed within the context of the greater Atlantic World, it will emphasize the interactions of competing European cultures with one another as well as with Native Americans and Africans. In addition to the struggles between European powers for imperial control of North America, we will explore themes and events such as the development of race-based slavery, the "Columbian exchange", expansion, Native Amercian resistance, ethnic diversity, the Great Awakening, and the Enlightment.

HST 321. American Revolution and Early Republic 1763-1800. 3 Credit Hours.

A survey of the history of the United States from the Peace of Paris of 1763 through the election of 1800. The course will focus on such topics as the causes of the Revolution, its impact on women, blacks and Native Americans, social protest, diplomacy with Britain and France, the rise of the first party system, and early national society and culture. Readings, research and discussion.

HST 322. Antebellum America, 1800-1848. 3 Credit Hours.

A survey of society and culture from the Jeffersonian era through the Mexican War. The course will examine the causes of the War of 1812, the rise of the industrial order and the cotton kingdom, slave resistance, the changing American family and the nature of Jacksonian democracy and reform. Readings, research and discussion.

HST 323. Civil War and Reconstruction. 3 Credit Hours.

Examines the causes of the conflict and the impact of the war on civilian populations, women and African-Americans. The course will also focus on diplomacy, civil liberties, the rise of the third party system, the crucial battles and the failure of Reconstruction. Readings, research and discussion.

HST 329. History of Latin American Social Movements. 3 Credit Hours.

Will examine peaceful Latin American social change movements in historical and global context. The civil components of violent revolutions will be examined along with peaceful social movements that confronted ruthless dictatorships across Latin America, energizing democracy and expanding ethnic rights. The course will look at how these movements re-defined gender roles and placed the economic and environmentals concerns of the poor in the international spotlight.

Cross-listed Courses: GWS 329, PSC 329, PGS 329

HST 331. From Civil War Through Civil Rights: African American History Since 1865. 3 Credit Hours.

This course surveys the thoughts, ideas, and actions of African Americans from emancipation through the long Civil Rights movement to the present. It focuses on major African American figures, the Era of Reconstruction, the rise of Jim Crow, the Great Migration and development of urban black communities, social protest movement through the 1940s, the civil rights movement and black power movements of the 1960s and 1970s, and racial issues through the election of Barack Obama as the first black president. Race, class, and gender are important elements of this course, as well as African American literature, film and music.

HST 333. Hitler's Germany. 3 Credit Hours.

The course will enable students to examine closely the origins, history, and impact of the National Socialist Party in Germany. The role of Hitler as a charismatic mass leader will be studied, as will other factors in German history that encouraged the growth of National Socialism. Special attention will be paid to the development of European racism and German antisemitism, and to the history of the Holocaust.

Prerequisite: HST 111.

HST 341. Native American History to 1890. 3 Credit Hours.

Native American History to 1890 begins with the premise that American Indians were active participants in the creation of their own history and not merely victims of disease, oppression and societal change brought to North America by Europeans. This course is designed to explore the changing world of American Indians from the pre-Columbian period through Wounded Knee in 1890. We will be studying topics common in American history through the 19th century such as colonialism, the American Revolution, the New Republic, the Civil War, and the settling of the West. We will be looking at these events with the focus being on how Native Americans both actively participated in and were affected by them. The goal in this approach is to understand the complex nature of European/ Indian interactions as well as to gain an understanding of the rich and diverse Indian cultures present in North America from 1492 to 1890.

HST 342. Slavery & Emancipation in Atlantic World. 3 Credit Hours.

This course examines the rise and fall of slave labor in the Atlantic world, from the European peasant revolts of the 14th century through the abolition of unfree labor in Brazil in 1888. The course will emphasize the varieties of slave labor across space and time, as well as gender roles within slave societies. It will also investigate the impact of urbanization and connections to larger market economies on slavery, and particularly slave resistance and rebelliousness. Readings, research, and discussion.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): Diversity (DIV) and Interdisciplinary Studies (IDS).

HST 343. History and Spirituality of the Jesuits. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will acquaint students with the history and the distinctive, world-engaging spirituality of the Society of Jesus. In addition to presenting a chronological overview of Jesuit history, it will also examine the central themes of the Spiritual Exercises and the missionary strategies and philosophy of education of the Jesuits.

Cross-listed Courses: REL 371

HST 350. State and Faith in the Middle East. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will examine how states used religion as a means of legitimacy and law as well as staged a desperate battle against religious forces from the Ottoman period until the present day. Islam will be the focus of the course, as a variety of fundamentalist/revivalist movements, the politicalization of religion, and secularization efforts are examined throughout the Middle East. In addition, the role of Judaism and Christianity will be discussed in regards to the establishment and present situation of Israel and Labanon.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 350

HST 355. The Outbreak of World War I. 3 Credit Hours.

The course will study one of the great detective stories of the twentieth century, focusing on this questions: Who was responsible for the outbreak of World War I? Students will develop techniques of close contextual analysis of diplomatic documents from the period, and the class will attempt to reach consensus on an answer to the question stated above. The course will cover the various options of conflict resolution available to the Great Powers of Europe in 1914, and students will attempt to discover why the options that were selected resulted in war rather than peace.

Prerequisite: HST 111.

HST 358. The Cold War & Global Confrontration 1945-1964. 3 Credit Hours.

An intensive study of superpower confrontations and conflicts from 1945 through 1964. Soviet and American attitudes and ideologies, the roots and origins of the Cold War, the nuclear arms race, crises and clashes in Europe and the Third World, social and cultural impacts.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 358

HST 359. Cold War & Global Upheaval,1964-Present. 3 Credit Hours.

An intensive study of the later years of the Cold War and the post-Cold War period. Continued Soviet and American rivalry combined with efforts to control the nuclear arms race, Third World "proxy wars" such as Vietnam and Afghanistan, the collapse of the Iron Curtain and end of the Soviet Union, global adjustments to the development of a unipolar world, the rise of terrorism and jihadist tendencies, social and cultural impacts.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 359, PGS 369

HST 361. Russian History. 3 Credit Hours.

A survey of Russian history from ancient times through the present including Kievan Rus, the Mongol Yoke, the Rise of Moscow, Imperial Russia, the Soviet era, and post-Soviet Russia. Emphasis will be placed on social, cultural and religious developments, as well as on the political history of the Russian state.

HST 363. Russian History Since 1900. 3 Credit Hours.

An in-depth study of modern Russian history from the reign of Tsar Nicholas II (1894-1917) to the present. Topics covered include the Russian Revolutions, the careers of Lenin and Stalin, the foreign and domestic policies of the USSR, the two World Wars and the Cold War, Soviet culture and society, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and developments in post-Soviet Russia.

HST 365. U.S. Women's History, From the Colonial Era to the Present. 3 Credit Hours.

This course studies the roles and experiences of women in american history, society, and culture, including women's roles in the family, work, education, health, religion, political reform, and social change from the colonial era to the present. This course will include discussions of the difference between sex and gender, and the intersection of race, class, gender, and sexuality in the lives of women.

HST 371. East Asia to 1600. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will introduce to students the history of East Asia from its Neolithic origins to 1600. It will examine the foundations of main East Asian nations, the important features of the classical East Asian civilization and further developments of East Asian cultures and societies prior to the arrival of the Westerners. Important East Asian classics, religious and ritual practices, such as Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, and Buddhism, will also be introduced. Other topics to be studied include relations between East Asia and its nomadic neighbors, different political systems, literate and martial traditions, popular cultures, important technological innovations, commercial and urban developments, peasant revolts, local societies, gender relations, Christian missionaries and the early contacts with the West.

HST 372. East Asia Since 1600. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will introduce to students the history of East Asia from 1600 to its most recent developments. Topics covered include the developments and problems of traditional East Asian political systems and societies, the causes and consequences of clashes with the West as well as among East Asian nations, popular protests, important social, cultural, intellectual movements and domestic reforms, various forms of nationalism, major revolutions, modernization programs and political, social, economic and cultural transformations, the prospect of democracy and civil society, and the rebalance of world powers and its impacts on East Asia.

HST 377. Early Islamic History, 600-1300. 3 Credit Hours.

Beginning in Late Antiquity, this course follows the emergence of Islam as a religion and its influence on cultural practice; the formation of the first Islamic dynasties; the articulation of an Arab-Islamic high literary culture and the evolving role of women in Islam. The course will examine the complex relationships between different Middle Eastern ethnic and religious groups and conclude with an investigation of the impact of the Crusades.

HST 378. Empires of Islam, 1300-1922. 3 Credit Hours.

This course traces the formation of the three great Islamic empires of the early modern era: the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East and Europe, the Safavid in Iran, and the Mughal in India. The political culture of each empire was shaped by the use of gunpowder, and all shared a common court culture based on the Persian language. Ottoman expansion in the Arab Middle East: the relationship between the Islamic-Turkic elite of each empire and their non-Muslim, primarily, Christian and Hindu subjects; and the reproductive politics of the imperial harem will be among the issues addressed.

HST 379. Modern Middle East Hist, 1792- Present. 3 Credit Hours.

The last two hundred years have been a period of profound and often troubling change for the people of the Middle East. In this period, modern technology, rapid forms of travel and communication and new ideas and concepts challenged for many the certainties of religion, family, gender, and class. A fundamental feature of these two centuries has been the growing role of Europe and Europeans in the lives of the inhabitants of the Middle East. Imperialism, colonialism and nationalism set in motion a series of events that transformed the region from a place where two great empires, the Ottoman and Qajar held sway, into a dozen independent states like Turkey, Egypt, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Iran. This course uses the words, art, literature and thought of local people to understand the way these changes interacted with the intellectual, social and cultural dimensions of Middle Eastern life.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 379

HST 383. History of Africa, C. 1400-1870. 3 Credit Hours.

Africa has often been described by Westerners as a continent cut off from the rest of the world. In this history of Africa prior to European colonization, we will challenge the perception of Africa as an isolated continent, by exploring its varied interactions with the world around it. During this course, we will evaluate Africa's role in world trading systems and its engagement with the world religions of Islam and Christianity. In so doing, we will focus our attention on the multiple dynamic systems of trade, government, and religion that existed within Africa. We will attempt to understand the interaction between Africa and the world, not only through the eyes of the outsiders who arrived, but especially through the eyes of the Africans who hosted them. We will also learn about Africans' changing interactions with one another inside the continent during this new era of extraversion.

HST 384. Africa During Long 20th Cent:1870-1994. 3 Credit Hours.

1870 marks the beginnings of the West's systematic dominance of Sub-Saharan Africa through colonization. The colonial encounter transformed both Africa and the West, as Africans fought to survive under a foreign administration, and Europeans struggled to uphold their hegemony and explain Africa to their compatriots "back home." As we familiarize ourselves with portions of Africa's history of late-19th century to the present, we will remain conscioius of the ways in which Africa has been portrayed in the West throughout the years. We will also seek out the ways in which Africans and people of African descent portrayed themselves. In so doing, we will pay particular attention to the post world-war II ideologies that surfaced throughout Africa and its diaspora and the political, cultural, and philosophical writings that emerged in conjunction with nationalist movements.

HST 388. Coca, Culture & Politics in Latin Amer. 3 Credit Hours.

Coca has been closely connected to religion and culture in Andean South America for millennia. The plant was both cultivated and controlled by the Inca and Spanish empires. Today, peasant coca growers are part of new Latin American political movements. Global demand for the drug cocaine, made from coca, finances insurgencies, civil wars, and criminal violence in Latin America. The United States and international bodies prosecute a "War on Drugs" that targets peasant growers and traditional use as much as it does criminal organizations. This course explores the local culture and international relations of coca and cocaine. It focuses on the Latin Americans who produce and consume coca and are victimized by the violence of both the drug trade and suppression efforts.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 388

HST 389. Opium, Empire, and State in Asia. 3 Credit Hours.

Opium is an ancient medicine that became a mainstay for European traders in Asia and the keystone of their imperial economies. After opium opened Asian states to European influence it was established as an economic necessity for multi-national empires, emerging states, and insurgencies alike. This course looks at the political, economic, and social relations of opium in Asia and the world. It examines the connections between local production and global trade in the politics of native cultures, national governments, and international relations. At the end of the semester students will be able to look at today's headlines and understand their historical roots as well their future implications. Fulfills Core: IDS.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 389, PGS 389

HST 390. Independent Study. 1-6 Credit Hours.

A student who wishes to pursue an independent study project for academic credit must submit, prior to registration, a proposed plan of study that includes the topic to be studied and goal to be achieved, the methodology to be followed, schedule of supervision, end product, evaluation procedure and number of credits sought. The proposal must be approved by the supervising faculty member, the department chair and the academic dean. It will be kept on file in the academic dean's office.

HST 401. Seminar: African-America to 1877. 3 Credit Hours.

This course studies the history and culture of African-Americans from colonial times through Reconstruction, with emphasis on their social, cultural and religious experiences. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

HST 403. Seminar: Mexico. 3 Credit Hours.

This course provides a detailed study of Mexico from pre-Columbian times to the present day. Themes include Maya and Aztec civilizations, the Spanish conquest, Mexico under Spanish colonial rule, the independence movements of 1810-1823, the era of the Great Reforms, the Mexican Revolution of 1910, and political, social and economic developments in contemporary Mexico. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 401

HST 406. Seminar: Modern East Asia. 3 Credit Hours.

This course studies the history of China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with emphasis on their customs and cultures and the impact on them of modernization, imperialism, revolution and war. A seminar project and oral report are required of all students. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement. Fulfills Core requirement: DIV.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 406

HST 409. Hst & Memory in Palestin-Israel Conflict. 3 Credit Hours.

This seminar explores the Palestinian-Israeli conflict through the lens of the linked concepts of history and memory. It uses as well, the rich literature generated by the conflict to explore the connections between historiography, commemoration, museology, archaeology and power; it takes a multidisciplinary approach to an understanding of how the history of the region has been written and how the past is made to live in the lives of contemporary Palestinians and Israelis. Likewise, it interrogates how history and memory are inscribed on national and diasporan identity and problematizes phenomena like "collective memory" "transgenerational trauma" and "national history." Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 413

HST 413. Seminar: Native Amer Approach to History. 3 Credit Hours.

The Senior Seminar in Native American approaches to history is designed to explore the history of North American and American Indians primarily from a Native American perspective. We will study various Native American approaches to recording their history such as oral tradition, wampum belts, and winter counts. We will also read works from Native American historians, anthropologists, activists and novelists in order to gain a greater understanding and appreciation for both Native American history and Native American approaches to historical study. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

HST 417. Seminar: African History. 3 Credit Hours.

This course introduces students to the development of African historiography. Students will interpret, analyze and critique different methodologies and have the opportunity to pursue their own specific research interests. In addition, this course will also examine the importance of the African oral tradition, European and Arabic travel literature, archeology and anthropology in the intellectual construction of Africa. This course is designed for upper-level history majors and other interested students and will fulfill the requirements of the senior core. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 417, PSC 417

HST 419. Seminar: the World Since 1945. 3 Credit Hours.

This seminar provides a global approach to recent world history with a focus on social, cultural, political, and economic developments in the non-Western world. Seminar projects will provide students with an opportunity for in-depth study of specific issues and developments in Latin American, Asian, African, or Middle Eastern societies since 1945. Not open to students who have taken HST 358 or HST 359. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

HST 425. Sem: Multicultural Approach to World Hst. 3 Credit Hours.

This seminar provides a multicultural approach to the study of world history, focusing on connections among African, Asian, Islamic, Native American, Latin American, and European/Western cultures. It is designed to improve students' understanding of diverse world cultures and the connections among them. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

HST 427. Latin America 1492-1825. 3 Credit Hours.

This is an introduction to Latin American under Spanish and Portuguese rule that places the region in global context. It looks at the development of Latin American society and explains the roots of modern Latin American nations and cultures. The course begins with indigenous cultures and adds migrants, free and slave. It ends with the independence movements that created modern Latin American nations.Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

HST 428. Seminar: Latin America Since 1825. 3 Credit Hours.

A study of the nations of Latin America from the independence period to the present. Chief emphasis on Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico: their struggle for political and economic stability, their progressive urbanization and modernization and their relations with each other and with the United States. The Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions and the policy of the United States toward Central America are also covered. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

Cross-listed Courses: PGS 428

HST 430. Seminar: Mathematics & Civilizations. 3 Credit Hours.

The Greeks of Antiquity attributed their early notions of Mathematics to the Egyptians and Babylonians. Their own contributions were inherited by the Islamic civilization, together with the fruits of Indian Mathematics. The learning preserved and increased by the Arabs was slowly transmitted to Western Europe from 950 to 1500. The Mathematics developed in China and Pre-Columbian America was largely isolated from the mainstream of Mathematics. This course will analyze the impact of Mathematics on the development of these Civilizations , and of our own, particularly on the other sciences and on philosophy. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV, IDS. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

HST 490. Internship. 1-6 Credit Hours.

Participation in a field learning experience closely related to one of the areas of history. The student intern will report as required to the internship coordinator and will be expected to evaluate the experience and relate it to his or her academic program. Three hours per week will be required to generate one credit. Pass/fail only. 50 G.P.A. or better, 60 credits earned, permission of internship coordinator.

Prerequisite: 2.

HST 495. Honors Project. 3 Credit Hours.

To qualify for an honors degree in history, a student must be a declared history major, have a G.P.A. of at least 3.5 overall and 3.75 in history and must complete an honors project. The project will typically consist of a historical research paper, written under the direction of a history professor, department chair, and supplemented by a formal presentation, an audiovisual project or an oral defense. A preliminary thesis, outline and bibliography must be approved by the professor and department chair before the student may register. (Normally taken in first semester of senior year.).