# Physics

**Chair:** David Craig

**Professor:** George Coyne, David Craig

**Associate Professor:** Stamatios Kyrkos

**Assistant Professor:** Christopher Bass

**Visiting Assistant Professor:** Dennis W. Sullivan

Physics is the foundation of all natural science. Its development over the centuries has yielded a precise quantitative discipline that has served not only as a model for the younger sciences, but is also basic to a fuller understanding of chemical and biological phenomena and contemporary technological advances.

For students who wish to major in physics, two degrees are available: the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science. The courses required for the Bachelor of Arts introduce students to a broad range of subjects in physics and serve as a foundation for future careers in fields such as science writing, patent law, medicine, teaching, philosophy of science, technical marketing, technology management and computational science. Several specific variations of the Physics B.A. are available. Please see the department chair.

The courses required for the Bachelor of Science are for students seeking a professional background in physics or engineering. These courses provide advanced undergraduate physics and laboratory experience, including the option of independent research with a member of the physics faculty.

The physics B.A. or B.S. with one of the pre-engineering concentrations described below serve as the foundation for one of the physics-based bachelor's degrees earned as part of the bachelor’s + master’s engineering degree partnership with Syracuse University. See the section of this catalog devoted to Engineering.

The Physics Bachelor of Arts/Master of Science in Teaching (Physics B.A./M.S.T.) course of study makes it possible to earn a physics B.A. and a master’s degree in secondary education, including preliminary certification, in five years. Further information about this course of study can be obtained from the department chair.

Further information on these courses of study can be found on the physics and engineering Web pages, www.lemoyne.edu/physics and www.lemoyne.edu/engineering.

## Student Learning Outcomes in Physics

Conversance with fundamental bodies of physical knowledge

a Classical Mechanics

b Electricity & Magnetism

c Relativity

d Quantum Mechanics

e Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

• Solve physical problems that require the use of introductory algebra and trigonometry, vectors, calculus, and approximations.

• Solve physical problems that require the use of advanced algebra and calculus, including differential equations, matrices, and eigenvalue problems.

• Employ software in modeling, visualization, and analysis of physical problems.

• Develop deeper, more complex problem solving techniques such as mastery of multiple representations of physical information including graphical representations, and approximation and estimation skills.

• Conduct error analysis and propagation of uncertainties into derived results.

• Analyze and interpret collected data and prepare clear written reports.

• Design and build equipment to make experimental measurements.

• Employ software and hardware in data acquisition, processing, and analysis.

• Present physical concepts, mathematical reasoning, and results of experiments through clear and effective scientific and/or technical written reports.

• Present scientific concepts and results through clear and effective oral and poster presentations.

• Write research proposals, including abstracts and project budgets.

• Demonstrate understanding of academic and scientific ethics and integrity and a respect for diversity in course and laboratory work, conduct of research, presentation of scientific results, and interactions with peers, students, mentors and mentees.

• Synthesize and apply knowledge and skills from different areas of physics.

• Develop project management skills.

• Conduct independent or mentor-supervised research projects.

• Develop ability to work collaboratively on short and long term projects.

- Physics Major (B.A.)
- Physics Major (B.S.)
- Physics (B.A.): Pre-Medical
- Minor
- Physics-based Engineering Concentrations

Students participating in the bachelor’s + master’s engineering partnership with Syracuse University must choose the appropriate concentration.- B.S. in Physics with Concentration in Pre-Engineering (Civil with Structural focus)
- B.S. in Physics with Concentration in Pre-Engineering (Civil with Geotechnical focus)
- B.S. in Physics with Concentration in Pre-Engineering (Electrical)
- B.S. in Physics with Concentration in Pre-Engineering (Environmental)
- B.S. in Physics with Concentration in Pre-Engineering (Mechanical and Aerospace)

## Physical Science (PHS)

**PHS 120. Astronomy. 3 Credit Hours. **

A survey of modern astronomy. Planets, stars, galaxies and the present scientific view of the universe and its origin are discussed. No prerequisites. Three lecture hours weekly.

**PHS 128. Cosmology:Sci of Phys Universe. 3 Credit Hours. **

Participants in this course will engage in a tour of the universe as we presently understand it and gain a much broader understanding of where we live. They will consider the scientific evidence available regarding the origin and future of the universe. They will consider the implications of this knowledge, and they will consider the questions that this knowledge raises. They will also see the process by which scientific knowledge is established, and they will encounter the limitations of the present state of our knowledge.

**PHS 175. Dynamic Creation: Faith and Reason. 3 Credit Hours. **

An interdisciplinary approach to the consideration of cosmology from the complementary perspectives of revelation and reason. The course will first consider the order of the universe as envisioned in selected works of the New Testament; it will then consider the data that the natural science of astronomy affords.

Prerequisite: Rel 200.

Cross-listed Courses: REL 389

**PHS 275. Photography and Photometry. 3 Credit Hours. **

This course explores those aspects of physics which relate to photography. It covers the basic properties of light, ray optics, infra red film and the visible spectrum, light polarization, lens optics, and the relationship of color film to light source. It also covers the digital camera and its components, and digital black and white printing. It provides students with an understanding of the relationship between physics and photography. No prerequisites. A compact digital camera or digital SLR camera is required. This course counts for core science credit.

## Physics (PHY)

**PHY 101. Non-Calculus General Physics I. 3 Credit Hours. **

An elementary course in physics with topics selected from mechanics of solids and fluids, kinetic theory, and heat. A thorough knowledge of high school algebra and trigonometry is a prerequisite. Because of the integration between PHY 101 and PHY 103, PHY 103 must be taken concurrently.

**PHY 102. Non-Calculus General Physics II. 3 Credit Hours. **

A continuation of PHY 101 with topics selected from waves, electromagnetic theory, and optics. General Physics I (either PHY 101 or PHY 105) and PHY 103 are prerequisites. Because of the integration between PHY 102 and PHY 104, PHY 104 must be taken concurrently.

**PHY 103. General Physics Laboratory. 1 Credit Hour. **

The activities of these laboratory courses are designed to give students taking PHY 101-102 and PHY 105-106 direct experience with the fundamental concepts that are the subjects of those courses, making these laboratory courses an integral part of PHY 101-102 and PHY 105-106. A thorough knowledge of high school algebra and trigonometry is a prerequisite. PHY 103 is a prerequisite for PHY 104. One two-hour laboratory period each full week of classes each semester.

**PHY 104. General Physics Laboratory. 1 Credit Hour. **

The activities of these laboratory courses are designed to give students taking PHY 101-102 and PHY 105-106 direct experience with the fundamental concepts that are the subjects of those courses, making these laboratory courses an integral part of PHY 101-102 and PHY 105-106. A thorough knowledge of high school algebra and trigonometry is a prerequisite. PHY 103 is a prerequisite for PHY 104. One two-hour laboratory period each full week of classes each semester.

**PHY 105. General Physics Scientists/Engineers I. 3 Credit Hours. **

An introduction to physics and the use of calculus in physical problems. Topics are selected from mechanics of solids and fluids, kinetic theory and heat. Previous experience with calculus, either in high school or college, or concurrent enrollment in college-level Calculus I is required. Because of the integration between PHY 105 and PHY 103, PHY 103 must be taken concurrently.

**PHY 106. General Physics Scientists/Engineers II. 3 Credit Hours. **

A continuation of PHY 105 with topics selected from waves, electromagnetic theory and optics. PHY 105 and PHY 103 are prerequisites. Because of the integration between PHY 106 and PHY 104, PHY 104 must be taken concurrently. Concurrent enrollment in college-level Calculus II is desirable but not required.

**PHY 201. Fields and Waves. 3 Credit Hours. **

An introduction to the physics of fields and waves, focusing primarily on electric and magnetic fields and electromagnetic waves. May include physical optics.

Prerequisites: Calculus 11 (MTH 146) and General Physics II (either PHY 102 or PHY 106).

**PHY 203. Foundations of Modern Physics. 3 Credit Hours. **

Introduction to the pillars of modern physics: special relativity and quantum mechanics. Includes an historical account of the theoretical and experimental development of quantum theory and an introduction to its concepts and methods. Additional topics may include, but are not limited to, the quantum physics of atoms, molecules, and solids, and contemporary applications. Prerequistites: Calculus II (MTH 146) and General Physics II (either PHY 102 or phy 106). Prior completion of PHY 201 is desirable but not required.

**PHY 215. Statics. 3 Credit Hours. **

A course in that branch of mechanics which deals with particles or bodies in equilibrium under the action of forces or torques. It embraces the composition and resolution of forces, the equilibrium of bodies under balanced forces and such properties of bodies as center of gravity and moment of inertia.

Prerequisites: General Physics II (either PHY 102 or PHY 106) and Calculus II (either MTH 146 or MTH 152).

**PHY 231. Experimental Foundations Modern Physics. 1 Credit Hour. **

Introduction to experimental methods in physics through experiments measuring fundamental properties of light and matter. Topics may include, but are not limited to, analysis of experimental data and propagation of uncertainties computer-aided data acquisition, and an introduction to instrumentation. Experimental topics may include, but are not limited to, the mass and charge of the electron, the speed of light, Planck's constant, properties of lasers and laser light, concepts of photon interference and quantum measurement, resonance and chaos in dynamical systems. One three-hour laboratory period per week. Prior completion of PHY 201 is strongly desirable but not required.

Prerequisites: Calculus II (MTH 146), General Physics II (PHY 102 or PHY 106).

Corequisite: PHY 203.

**PHY 251. Spc Topic: Fundamentals of Engineering. 3 Credit Hours. **

Special Topics: A J-mester course introducing fundamental technical tools for engineers, including especially, but not necessarily limited to, introductory training in engineering CAD [Computer Aided Design] and numerical analysis of engineering problems [Matlab, Maple, Octave, or similar packages]. Course may include an engineering design competition that requires hands-on work outside of class time. Some class and /or computer lab time may be required at Syracuse University or other remote location.

**PHY 280. Info in Chem & Physical Sciences. 1 Credit Hour. **

This course will introduce the changing information landscape in chemistry and the physical sciences to help students become effective database and "free web" searchers. Students will also become familiar with the social and ethical issues relation to the production and use of scientific information in an increasingly digital society.

**PHY 303. Classical Electromagnetic Theory I. 3 Credit Hours. **

An advanced undergraduate course in classical electromagnetic theory. PHY 303 covers vector calculus, electrostatics and magnetostatics. PHY 304 is primarily devoted to electromagnetic dynamics and, time allowing, applications.

Prerequisites: A course in differential equations (MTH 303 or MTH 304), PHY 201, and PHY 203.

**PHY 304. Classical Electromagnetic Theory II. 3 Credit Hours. **

An advanced undergraduate course in classical electromagnetic theory. PHY 303 covers vector calculus, electrostatics and magnetostatics. PHY 304 is primarily devoted to electromagnetic dynamics and, time allowing, applications.

Prerequisites: A course in differential equations (MTH 303 or MTH 304), PHY 201, and PHY 203.

**PHY 307. Quantum Mechanics I. 3 Credit Hours. **

Topics are selected from, but not limited to, the quantum nature of reality, the Schroedinger equation, square-well potentials, the simple harmonic oscillator, tunneling, angular momentum, the hydrogen atom and the periodic table.

Prerequisites: A course in differential equations (MTH 303 or MTH 304), PHY 201, and PHY 203.

**PHY 308. Quantum Mechanics II. 3 Credit Hours. **

Continuation of PHY 307, focusing on applications. Topics covered include, but are not necessarily restricted to, time-independent perturbation theory, variational principles, approximation, time-dependent preturbation theory, and scattering.

**PHY 311. Electronics I. 4 Credit Hours. **

A course in scientific (as opposed to consumer) analog electronics. Topics include use of electronic test equipment, circuit theory, analog applications of discrete passive and active devices and analog integrated circuits. Op-amp applications (amplifiers, adders, integrators, differentiators, active inductors, oscillators, active filters, etc.) are the primary interest. Other integrated circuits such as voltage regulators, function generators, multipliers and phase locked loops may be introduced as time allows. Three lecture hours and one three-hour laboratory period per week.

Prerequisites: Calculus II (MTH 146 or MTH 152) and General Physics (PHY 102 or PHY 106).

**PHY 312. Electronics II. 4 Credit Hours. **

A course in scientific (as opposed to consumer) digital electronics. Topics include use of electronic test equipment, digital applications of discrete passive and active devices, digital integrated circuits (gates, decoders, flip-flops, counters, shift-registers, digital memory, clocks), and analog/ digital hybrids such as comparators, analog switches and gates with Schmitt trigger inputs. Applications include bus interfacing, multiplexing, wave shaping, digitalto-analog conversion and analog-to-digital conversion. Three lecture hours and one three-hour laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Calculus II (MTH 146 or MTH 152) and General Physics (PHY 102 or PHY 106).

**PHY 321. Analytical Mechanics I. 3 Credit Hours. **

An advanced undergraduate course treating mechanics in the Newtonian, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations with applications. Prerequisite or corequisite: MTH 303 or MTH 304 and PHY 203.

Prerequisite: PHY 201.

**PHY 322. Analytical Mechanics II. 3 Credit Hours. **

An advanced undergraduate course treating mechanics in the Newtonian, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations with applications.

Prerequisites: A course in differential equations (MTH 303 or MTH 304), PHY 201, and PHY 203.

**PHY 331. Atomic & Nuclear Physics Laboratory. 1 Credit Hour. **

Experimental topics are drawn from, but not limited to, microwave optics and the physics of the nucleus. One three-hour laboratory period each week for one semester.

Prerequisite: PHY 203.

**PHY 333. Computational Physics. 3 Credit Hours. **

An introduction to computer techniques and simulations emphasizing problem solving in physics and the use of statistical, differential, integral, graphical, and numerical methods. Examples will be drawn from classical, statistical, and quantum mechanics and will include numerical integration, differentiation, and the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations, using programs such as Exel, Maple, Matlab, Mathematica etc.

Prerequisites: MTH 145 and MTH 146.

Corequisite: MTH 245.

**PHY 390. Independent Study in Physics. 1-3 Credit Hours. **

A student who wishes to pursue an independent study project for academic credit must submit, prior to registration, a proposed plan of study that includes the topic to be studied and goal to be achieved, the methodology to be followed, schedule of supervision, end product, evaluation procedure and number of credits sought. The proposal must be approved by the supervising faculty member, the department chair and the academic dean. It will be kept on file in the dean of arts and science's office.

**PHY 399. Independent Study. 3 Credit Hours. **

**PHY 401. Mathematical Physics. 3 Credit Hours. **

Topics are selected from, but not limited to, matrix algebra, complex analysis, Fourier series and Fourier analysis, classical functions of mathematical physics (orthogonal polynomials, Bessel functions, gamma function,...) and applications.

Prerequisites: General Physics 11 (PHY 102 or PHY 106) and a course in differential equations (MTH 303 or MTH 304).

**PHY 403. Physical Optics. 3 Credit Hours. **

An intermediate course in physical optics, designed for senior physics majors, treating interference, diffraction, absorption, polarization and other aspects of electromagnetic wave phenomena.

Prerequisite: PHY 303.

**PHY 405. Statistical Physics. 3 Credit Hours. **

This course deals with statistical methods applied to systems of particles, statistical thermodynamics and the statistical treatment of quantized systems. Applications to diverse topics such as ideal and non-ideal gases, black body radiation, metallic conduction and magnetic effects are developed. Prerequisite or corequisite: PHY 321.

Prerequisite: PHY 203.

**PHY 407. Condensed Matter Physics. 3 Credit Hours. **

Structure and binding of solids, electrical, magnetic and optical properties. Prerequisite or co-requisite: PHY 307.

**PHY 408. Nuclear Physics. 3 Credit Hours. **

Problems of nuclear forces, structure and stability, nuclear reactions.

Prerequisite: PHY 307.

**PHY 431. Advanced Physics Laboratory. 1 Credit Hour. **

Experimental topics are selected from, but not limited to, x-ray physics and applications such as atomic shell structure and crystal structure. One three-hour laboratory period each week for one semester.

Prerequisite: PHY 203.

**PHY 441. Research Projects in Physics. 1-3 Credit Hours. **

A laboratory course designed to apply the principles and techniques of experimental and/or theoretical physics to a senior project. The student engages in one or more research projects under the direction of one of the staff. One equivalent laboratory period per credit weekly for one year. Prerequisite/corequisite: PHY 280.

**PHY 476. Physics Capstone. 3 Credit Hours. **

Capstone to the physics major. Independent research in collaboration with a faculty supervisor. (The nature of the project will vary with student interests and goals and faculty resources, but may include library research, creative work, theoretical or computational research, or laboratory work.) Students will give formal oral presentations on their research and wrtie a comprehensive thesis on the work. Open to senior majors in physics and others with the consent of the program director. May be pursued in conjunction with honors theses if the projects are compatible with the requirements of each program, and with the prior consent of both programs. For students in the Bachelors-Masters engineering program with Syracuse University, may be pursued in conjunction with engineering projects at Syracuse if compatiblie with the requirements of each program, and with the prior consent of the program director. (Such projects must also have a Le Moyne College faculty supervisor.) Open to senior majors in physics and others with the consent of the program director.

**PHY 490. Physics Internship. 1-6 Credit Hours. **

Participation in a field learning experience related to the area of physics. The student will report as required to the faculty member assigned to supervise this field experience and is expected to evaluate the experience and relate it to his or her academic program. Three hours of field work per week for 14 weeks will be required to generate one credit.

Prerequisites: junior standing and permission of the department chair.

**PHY 491. Physics Internship. 1-6 Credit Hours. **

Participation in a field learning experience related to the area of physics. The student will report as required to the faculty member assigned to supervise this field experience and is expected to evaluate the experience and relate it to his or her academic program. Three hours of field work per week for 14 weeks will be required to generate one credit.

Prerequisites: junior standing and permission of the department chair.