Peace and Global Studies (PGS)

PGS 101. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Credit Hours.

This course introduces students to the basic concepts, theories and methodologies in anthropology by focusing on the classic four fields of the discipline: physical anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and cultural anthropology. This course focuses on the evolution of the human species and theories of early culture, the reconstruction of the past through archaeological analysis, the structure and usage of language as part of culture, and the description and analysis of societies and cultures utilizing comparative theories and methodologies in cultural anthropology. No prerequisite. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.

Cross-listed Courses: ANT 101

PGS 102. World Cultures. 3 Credit Hours.

What is it like to grow up in New Guinea? How do the Maya fit into the world system? Where do the Massai go when looking for a mate? This is a survey course to make you aware of various social structures and cultural practices around the world. By systematically analyzing many socio-cultural factors, such as subsistence, family, kinship, gender, political system, and religion the cause will illuminate basic similarities and differences among all peoples and cultures. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.

Cross-listed Courses: ANT 102

PGS 105. Comparative Government. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will introduce you to the comparative analysis of governments, political movements, institutions, cultures, and ideologies around the world. The course will comparatively address a variety of cases including the UK, France, Brazil, Iran, China, Russia, India, Nigeria, and the U.S.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): DIV.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 105

PGS 200. Cultural Myths and Cultural Realities. 3 Credit Hours.

This course focuses on how we study other, especially non-western, cultures. In it, we look at recent critical debates on the nature of anthropological inquiry and the representations of other cultures that anthropologists have constructed. Is anthropology a science or humanity? How accurate are the anthropologists' representations of other cultures? Why do anthropologists studying the same culture come up with very different pictures of that culture? How much of the anthropologist's own personal and cultural biases are revealed in the way other cultures are described? How does the anthropologist's own theoretical perspective affect the way the data are interpreted? Is the nature of anthropological inquiry such that we can never escape biases? What kinds of methodologies do anthropologists use and what are their limitations? How can restudies enable us to refine our methods and generate more sophisticated comparative categories to use in the understanding of cultures? Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.

Cross-listed Courses: GWS 200, ANT 200

PGS 201. Introduction to Peace & Global Studies. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will provide an introduction to Peace and Global Studies. The first segment of the course will examine different ways of thinking about peace and different methodologies to achieve a peaceful world. It will be interdisciplinary, examining the problem of peace from spiritual, psychological, anthropological, literary, histor- ical, and political perspectives. The second seg- ment of the course covers a variety of global topics and issues that are either threats to peace, pose the potential to create serious and enduring threats to the well-being of people of the world, or offer possible solutions. Taken together, the two segments of the course introduce students to some of the different approaches to peace that they will encounter and will help them to evaluate critically those approaches and perspectives. They will also have some insight into the range and complexity of the issues that are global in scope.

PGS 213. People&Cultures Southeast Asia. 3 Credit Hours.

An anthropological and topical introduction to the region of Southeast Asia and the various societies and cultures found there. Topics to be discussed are: regional definition and intra-regional variation, ecology and economic systems, history and prehistory, social organization including politico-territorial systems and concepts of hierarchy and power, kinship and alliance systems, patron-client systems, ethnic groups and ethnicity, religions, gender systems, personality and communicative systems such as language and other conceptual and symbolic systems. The focus of the course will be on analyses that contrast with western views and that have provided a source of debate on western theories of society and culture.

Cross-listed Courses: GWS 213, ANT 213

PGS 223. Global Crime. 3 Credit Hours.

This course explores illegal activity and criminalization in the context of the destabilizing effects of globalization. The course considers the transnational dimension of crime in both the developed and postcolonial parts of the world, and its connections to our own everyday lives. The course will cover the growth and character of the extra-legal networks of power and finance that shape our contemporary world, and will examine their relations with state power, corporate business, and law enforcement activities. Finally, it introduces some of the challenges of both supra-state and popular responses to illegitimate activities that are shaped by global political economy.

Prerequisite: CJS 101 or ANT 101.

Cross-listed Courses: CJS 223, ANT 223

PGS 225. Gangs and Criminal Community. 3 Credit Hours.

This course introduces students to gang-life as an urban phenomenon that starts in the 19th century and that in the 2000s is diffused across the margins and illicit flows of the global economy. Students will read memoirs of members of gang communities, with attention to notions of agency and iconoclasm, situating gang life in a continuum of political resistance. We will aslo look at the history of modern transnational gangs as a view into the history of displacement, modern war, and the pre-history to the discourses surrounding "global terrorism", giving students the tools for a critical reading of current debates around state security, "organized crime", and sovereignty.

Cross-listed Courses: CJS 225, SOC 225

PGS 261. International Politics. 3 Credit Hours.

A survey of some major problems associated with international politics. Special attention also is given to the study of nationalism, the nation-state, international organization (especially the United Nations), comparative foreign policies of selected nations. An integrated one-credit service learning experience may be offered in conjunction with this course.

PGS 300. Anthropological Linguistics. 3 Credit Hours.

An introduction to the science of linguistics, focusing on the social and cultural aspects of language. Topics to be considered are: 1) language and human nature; 2) linguistic and non-linguistic forms of communication; literate and oral cultures; 4) the basic components of language; 5) meaning in language and speech; 6) language differentiation along sociological lines (race, class, gender, etc.); and 7) the relationship between language and cultural knowledge systems, especially those of non-western cultures.

Cross-listed Courses: FLL 301, ANT 300

PGS 303. Democracy and Its Critics. 3 Credit Hours.

The term "democracy" has become synonymous with legitimate rule. But what kind of democracy is the true fountain of legitimacy? What type of institutions are best fitted for instituting democracy? What are the conditions without which democracy cannot survive? Who is included in the phrase "we, the people"? Are democratic regimes more viable in homogenous or heterogeneous societies? Can democracy be tyrannical? This course investigates historical and contemporary controversies that reflect various challenges to democracy, the forms of actual democratic politics, and the meaning of "democracy" as a concept.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): IDS.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 303

PGS 314. Post-Colonial Literature and Theory. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will introduce students to theories of colonialism through the study of world literatures. What is the impact colonization on a culture? How do questions of language, race, class, and gender impact the experience of colonialism? Students will read novels and short works from a variety of formerly subject nations, including India, Nigera, Egypt, and Ireland. Short segments of theory will guide and accompany these readings.

Prerequisites: WRT 101, and ENG 200, ENG 210 or ENG 218.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): DIV.

Cross-listed Courses: ENG 340, GWS 314

PGS 323. Contemporary World Literature in English. 3 Credit Hours.

Students will read major literary works in English by writers from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. The principal texts have been published since the 1980s, and address issues such as colonialism and postcolonialism, national identity, globalization, migration, economic exploitation, and gender and sexuality.

Prerequisites: WRT 101 and ENG 200 or 218.

Cross-listed Courses: ENG 323

PGS 325. Religious and Cultural Ecologies. 3 Credit Hours.

This course explores the rich diversity of religious and cultural ecologies found throughout much of the world. Religious and cultural ecologies refer to the scientific and scholarly studies of the vast, complex, diverse, and dynamic arena at the interfaces of religions and cultures on the one hand, and environments, ecologies and environmentalism on the other. The course asks the question of what roles, if any, the religious traditions of different cultures the world over might play in addressing the contemporary ecological crisis. This question is addressed from a combined religous studies and anthropological approach focusing on the intersections of religion, culture, and ecology from a textual, contexual, and cross-cultural or comparative framework.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): Interdisciplinary Studies (IDS).

Cross-listed Courses: ANT 325

PGS 329. History of Latin American Social Movements. 3 Credit Hours.

Will examine peaceful Latin American social change movements in historical and global context. The civil components of violent revolutions will be examined along with peaceful social movements that confronted ruthless dictatorships across Latin America, energizing democracy and expanding ethnic rights. The course will look at how these movements re-defined gender roles and placed the economic and environmentals concerns of the poor in the international spotlight.

Cross-listed Courses: GWS 329, HST 329, PSC 329

PGS 330. Cross-Cultural Psychology. 3 Credit Hours.

Cross-cultural psychology is an approach emphasizing evaluation of psychological knowledge in the context of culture. Do the discoveries psychologists have made apply to all people from all cultures or only to some people, depending on culture? This course explores the impact of society and culture on human behavior, identity and personality development, social interaction norms, and even perceptual tendencies. We will examine what it means to say that humans are socio-cultural in nature. We will also examine those areas where humans differ, due to varied cultural experiences. Areas of interest will include education and development, views on intelligence, perceptual and cognitive processes, motivation, sex and gender and aggression. The examination of these issues will aid students in developing the ability to understand and interact with individuals and groups in other countries and in our own heterogeneous nation. Fulfills Core diversity requirement.

Cross-listed Courses: PSY 330

PGS 331. Readings in Globalization. 3 Credit Hours.

Through literature, film, and theory, this course explores the cultural and social significance of globalization and such related issues as migration, nationality, and identity. A central factor in globalization is the movement of people among different cultural locations and economic conditions, and this course will help students understand the importance of displacement in the creation of the contemporary era. Texts in this course consider what it means to identify with a plurality of linguistic, racial or cultrual positions, and address the diverse yet deeply connected experiences that define contemporary global culture. Readings by authors such as Nuruddin Farah (Somalia), M.G. Vassanji (Kenya/Tanzania/Canada), and Zadie Smith (England), and films by directors such as Atom Egoyan (Canada), Hanif Kureishi (England), and Faith Akin (Germnay/Turkey).

PGS 334. Social Activism. 3 Credit Hours.

An experiential and academic examination of social activism in the United States. The course first explores the meaning of citizenship and the role of activism in a democratic republic. It then focuses on how activism is done by analyzing various social movements and the impact they have had on citizenship, public policy and social change.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): Interdisciplinary Studies (IDS).

Cross-listed Courses: GWS 334, PSC 334

PGS 335. Asian Philosophy. 3 Credit Hours.

An examination of the main philosophical traditions of India and the Far East: Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. This course will focus upon mysticism as a primary determinant of Eastern thought and will seek to place these philosophies in their historical and cultural setting. (C,D).

Cross-listed Courses: PHL 325

PGS 336. Comparative Social Ethics. 3 Credit Hours.

The course is a study in comparative religious ethics. The course will guide students through the ethical perspectives that eastern, western, and indigenous religious traditions have developed on four social issues facing our world: the construction of sexuality and gender, social justice, violence and the environment.

Prerequisite: REL 200.

Cross-listed Courses: REL 336

PGS 343. U.S. Latina Thought. 3 Credit Hours.

U.S. Third World women in general and Latinas in particular have raised important philosophical questions that have enriched philosophical and feminist considerations about the nature of the self, reality, knowledge and politics. This course will involve a close reading of a number of philosophical and literary texts by U.S. Latinas from a number of different social locations.

Cross-listed Courses: PHL 326, GWS 343

PGS 344. Immigration. 3 Credit Hours.

This course examines the topic of immigration from multiple perpectives: historical comparison between current and previous waves of immigrants, politcal debates over what we should do locally and nationally, the complex economic and social impacts of immigrants(both legal and unauthorized), the changing legal environment, comparative immigration policies, and the post-9/11 national security implications of immigration. This course aims to have you explore and challenge your own views, try to make sense of completing arguments and evidence, and gain a respect for perspectives not your own. A visit to the National Immigration Museum at Ellis Island may be planned.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): Diversity (DIV).

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 344, SOC 343, CJS 343

PGS 350. State and Faith in the Middle East. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will examine how states used religion as a means of legitimacy and law as well as staged a desperate battle against religious forces from the Ottoman period until the present day. Islam will be the focus of the course, as a variety of fundamentalist/revivalist movements, the politicization of religion, and secularization efforts are examined throughout the Middle East. In addition, the tole of Judaism and Christianity will be discussed in regards to the eastablishment and present situation of Israel and Lebanon.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 350

PGS 353. Latin American Social Philosophy. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will study some of the major philosophical trends in Latin America in the light of both the search for cultural identity and the discovery of difference in the heart of sameness. Therefore, it will also consider those philosophies of social change which (a) provide a critique of hegemonic ideologies, (b) try to rediscover the submerged validity of pre-conquest and non-Western world views and (c) seek a dialogical integration of the diversity of voices in Latin America. (A,C).

Cross-listed Courses: PHL 353

PGS 358. The Cold War & Global Confront 1945-1964. 3 Credit Hours.

An intensive study of superpower confrontations and conflicts from 1945 through 1964. Soviet and American attitudes and ideologies, the roots and origins of the Cold War, the nuclear arms race, crises and clashes in Europe and the Third World, social and cultural impacts.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 358

PGS 360. Model United Nations. 1 Credit Hour.

This course is designed to provide an orientation to the activities of the United Nations, as well as providing an understanding of the modalities of international diplomacy. This course will include current events, pressing international issues, the basics of international law and some of the protocol and procedures of diplomacy. All of this will assist students in preparing for their role as a distinguished diplomat at the National Model United Nations conference (conference attendance is not mandatory).

PGS 363. U.S. Foreign Policy. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will examine how the foreign policy of the United States is made. It will look at the sources of foreign policy, the factors which influence its formation, and the substance of past and present U.S. policies. A one-credit integrated service learning experience may be offered with this course.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 363

PGS 364. International Law. 3 Credit Hours.

The course will examine the theory and practice of International Law (IL) with reference to various events, which shaped the development of international law in all its forms (norms, rules, principles, precedent, custom, treaties etc). The course will emphasize current international legal norms and possibilities for future development.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 362, LGS 362

PGS 365. Religions of Asia. 3 Credit Hours.

The practices, beliefs and history of Hinduism, Buddhism (including Japanese developments) and Taoism will be examined in this course. Particular attention will be given to the relationship of each tradition to its cultural context in the course of history and to problems confronting each tradition in the modern world.

Prerequisite: REL 200.

Cross-listed Courses: REL 363

PGS 366. Globalization: the Politics of International Economic Relations. 3 Credit Hours.

This course focuses on the power relationships behind contemporary international economic events. Among the issues that will be addressed: trade and protectionism, multinational corporations, international debt, the opening of investment markets in Eastern Europe and Western-Third World economic relations. The basic principles of macroeconomics and international finance will be covered.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): Diversity (DIV).

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 366

PGS 367. War, Peace and Violence. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will examine the theory and practice of the Just War doctrine. At the most general level, we will be concerned with the debate between realists, just war theorists and pacifists over the moral character of war. More specific topics include the justification of defensive, pre-emptive and preventive wars; humanitarian intervention; the combatant/noncombatant distinction; the distinction between direct and "collateral" harm to civilians; sieges, blockades and economic sanctions; guerrilla warfare; terrorism and reprisals; nuclear deterrence; and various religious conceptions of war and peace, especially those found in various Christian pacifist and Islamic traditions.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): IDS.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 367

PGS 367S. War,Peace & Violence Service Learning. 1 Credit Hour.

Service learning experience.

PGS 368. Rel Thought/Cult in Lat Americ. 3 Credit Hours.

This course offers a thematic examination of religious thought and culture in Latin America from the time of conquest to the present. From the perspective of cultural studies, this course explores the pervasive influence of religion in the formation of Latin America identity, culture, politics and material history. Particular attention will be given to the diversity and syncretization of religious traditions, as well as to the continuing importance and influence of pre-conquest religious ideas, values, and traditions. Topics considered include: colonialism and missionary history; influence and effects of Spanish and African religious traditions; religion and intellectual life; political movements and the theologies of liberation; relationship; relationship to U.S. Latino religious identity and traditions.

Prerequisite: Rel 200.

Cross-listed Courses: REL 368

PGS 369. Cold War & Global Upheaval,1964-Present. 3 Credit Hours.

An intensive study of the later years of the Cold War and the post-Cold War period. Continued Soviet and American rivalry combined with efforts to control the nuclear arms race, Third World "proxy wars" such as Vietnam and Afghanistan, the collapse of the Iron Curtain and end of the Soviet Union, global adjustments to the development of a unipolar world, the rise of terrorism and jihadist tendencies, social and cultural impacts.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 359, PSC 359

PGS 370. International Courts & Global Justice. 3 Credit Hours.

This course combines almost three weeks of study abroad at The Hague University in the summer with Le Moyne-based sessions in the Fall. The course provides historical, analytical, as well as experiential education in the fields of genocide studies, justice, and conflict resolution through intensive workshops, lectures, simulations, and a case-study. We will focus on the meaning of justice and its various dimensions (do we seek retribution, restoration, or some transitional middle ground?), and on how the international pursuit of that justice is complicated by issues such as sovereignty, denial of genocide, on-going violence, and the rejection of international jurisdiction. The course consists of in-class "traditional" lectures at (built around the case study and all of the related facets of international justice), interactive sessions with international court personnel, jurists, and scholars, as well as visits to historical sites.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 370

PGS 374. African Christian Theology. 3 Credit Hours.

The course examines the encounter between African traditional religions and cultures and European Christianity during nineteenth century missionary expansion into sub-Saharan Africa. It also explores the movements that gave rise to contemporary African Christian theology. Although the course is ecumenical in scope, it places particular emphasis on the Roman Catholic theological tradition.

Cross-listed Courses: REL 374

PGS 375. The New Europe: Central & Eastern Europe. 3 Credit Hours.

This course provides a comparative analysis of the political systems in Eastern Europe from 1945 to the present. The goal of this course is to provide students with a broad perspective on the changes that took place in Eastern Europe over the last century with an emphasis on the period around and after the 1989 revolutions.

Fulfills Core Requirement(s): IDS and DIV.

Cross-listed Courses: PSC 375

PGS 379. Modern Middle East Hist 1792 - Present. 3 Credit Hours.

The last two hundred years have been a period of profound and often troubling change for the people of the Middle East. In this period, modern technology, rapid forms of travel and communication and new ideas and concepts challenged for many the certainties of religion, family, gender, and class. A fundamental feature of these two centuries has been the growing role of Europe and Europeans in the lives of the inhabitants of the Middle East. Imperialism, colonialism and nationalism set in motion a series of events that transformed the region from a place where two great empires, the Ottoman and Qajar held sway, into a dozen independent states like Turkey, Egypt, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Iran. This course uses the words, art, literature and thought of local people to understand the way these changes interacted with the intellectual, social and cultural dimensions of Middle Eastern life.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 379

PGS 381. Christianity in Dialogue. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will explore contemporary dialogue between Christianity and other world religions, with the aim of helping students address basic questions that arise in the course of such inter-religious relationships. Students will explore some of the basic attitudes that Christian thinkers have taken toward respectful engagement of other faiths, as well as addressing the obstacles that hinder dialogue. Furthermore, Christian approaches to interfaith dialogue will be explored intensively with respect to one particular world religion or family of traditions, which may vary as the course is offered from year to year. We will enter into the contemporary dialogue between Christianity and Hinduism. Our study will focus on Hindu-Christian dialogue as it has been enacted in both personal and communal contexts. A further focus will address the performance of dialogue through the cross-cultural interpretation of canonical texts. Prerequisite/

Corequisite: REL 200.

PGS 388. Coca, Culture & Politics in Latin Amer. 3 Credit Hours.

Coca has been closely connected to religion and culture in Andean South America for millennia. The plant was both cultivated and controlled by the Inca and Spanish empires. Today, peasant coca growers are part of new Latin American political movements. Global demand for the drug cocaine, made from coca, finances insurgencies, civil wars, and criminal violence in Latin America. The United States and international bodies prosecute a "War on Drugs" that targets peasant growers and traditional use as much as it does criminal organizations. This course explores the local culture and international relations of coca and cocaine. It focuses on the Latin Americans who produce and consume coca and are victimized by the violence of both the drug trade and suppression efforts.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 388

PGS 389. Opium, Empire, and State in Asia. 3 Credit Hours.

Opium is an ancient medicine that became a mainstay for European traders in Asia and the keystone of their imperial economies. After opium opened Asian states to European influence it was established as an economic necessity for multi-national empires, emerging states, and insurgencies alike. This course looks at the political, economic, and social relations of opium in Asia and the world. It examines the connections between local production and global trade in the politics of native cultures, national governments, and international relations. At the end of the semester students will be able to look at today's headlines and understand their historical roots as well their future implications. Fulfills Core: IDS.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 389, PSC 389

PGS 390. Independent Study. 3 Credit Hours.

PGS 397. The Anthropology of Obesity. 3 Credit Hours.

Conversations about the obesity epidemic resonate throughout the world and the solution to growing rates of obesity often seems simple: we need to get people to exercise more and eat healthier diets. However, when viewed through an anthropological lens, obesity becomes a much more complex phenomenon, both culturally and biologically. This course will present various cultural perceptions of fatness from around the world to demonstrate that in some cultures bigger is actually viewed as a healthier outcome. Furthermore, the class will conceptualize nutritional outcomes as the culmination of political, economic, and cultural circumstances rather than merely the outcome of an individual's diet and exercise preferences. Obesity will therefore be viewed as a biocultural phenomenon and students will be encouraged to think about the relationships between biological outcomes (body sizes) and the cultural context in which these outcomes occur. The goal of this course is to ask students to think about obesity from multiple angles to being to appreciate that there is no single view of or solution to rising body weights. The broader goal is to demonstate that anthropology can bring multi-dimensional views to help alleviate public health concerns around the world.

Cross-listed Courses: ANT 397

PGS 398. Special Topics: the Anthropology of Ireland. 3 Credit Hours.

The purpose of this class is to learn about the history, culture, and languages of Ireland using an anthropological perspective. This class will encompass all four-fields of anthropology since we will read texts that discuss Irish archaeology, culture, biology, and linguistics. As such, the goal is to get a holistic understanding of life in Ireland across space and time. We will take a four-part approach to the study of Ireland beginning with an exploration of pre-Christian Ireland, followed by a discussion of colonialism and partition, then a discussion of the conflict in Northern Ireland, and concluding with an examination of life in Ireland today.

PGS 399. Diversity in the City. 3 Credit Hours.

Special Topic: The course focuses on the cultural, ethnic, religious and class diversity of Paris' changing landscape. Students will use Bourdieu, Goffman, Marx, and Simmel and other theorists to understand diversity, culture and identity by studying the diversity of "the city." Through readings, documentaries and a weeklong trip to Paris students will use sociological theories on society and culture to study diversity in the city. In particular the minority populations of the immigrant French communities, the recent North African immigrant communities, and the Muslim communities will be examined. This class will also explore how religous (Catholic and Muslim) as well as ethnic diversity shapes current debates on French and European citizenship. This class concludes with a 11-12 day trip to Paris that will include visits to the Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame, the Arab Institute, Luxembourg Gardens, La Mosque (Paris' mosque) and Jardin des Plantes.

Cross-listed Courses: SOC 399

PGS 400. International Business. 3 Credit Hours.

The purpose of this course is to provide students with a foundation of the basic concepts and tools for the conduct of international business. Consideration is given to the managerial and operational opportunities and problems of the company operating internationally. Emphasis is on behavioral aspects and environmental factors influencing and affecting the use of international business strategies, the development of an international orientation. The role of international business as a contributor to the company's overall business objective achievement is stressed.

Prerequisite: senior standing in business or permission of the instructor.

Cross-listed Courses: BUS 400

PGS 401. Seminar: Mexico. 3 Credit Hours.

This course provides a detailed study of Mexico from pre-Columbian times to the present day. Themes include Maya and Aztec civilizations, the Spanish conquest, Mexico under Spanish colonial rule, the independence movements of 1810-1823, the era of the Great Reforms, the Mexican Revolution of 1910, and political, social and economic developments in contemporary Mexico. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 403

PGS 402. Global Economic Issues. 3 Credit Hours.

Is globalization inevitable and irreversible? Who are the winners and losers? Globalization is the process of integration of markets, politics, and legal systems. Supporters of globalization believe it increases a nation's economic growth and expands opportunities for countries to trade and realize comparative advantages in their areas of strength. Opponents believe it increases inequality within and between nations, threatens employment and living standards, thwarts labor and environmental standards, and retards social progress. This course includes a description of the principles and practices of foreign trade; mechanisms of international payments; international trade policies, international trade and financial institutions; international cartels; and defines globalization; examines its impact on trade; movement of capital and labor; diffusion of knowledge and technology, and distribution of income in the world.

Prerequisite: Either ECO 113 or ECO 114.

Cross-listed Courses: ECO 405

PGS 404. Jerusalem-The Politics of Sacred Space. 3 Credit Hours.

These courses are designed to investigate the presuppositions, structures and images that underlie the human attempt to understand basic religious issues. Through various unifying foci (such as the question of God, theory and praxis, faith and justice, etc.), students will be enabled to come to a reflective understanding of their own religious assumptions and values in the context of their previous years of study. The courses will have a seminar format, with an emphasis on student discussion and active integration of material through class presentations and written work.

Cross-listed Courses: REL 402

PGS 405. International Human Rights. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will examine the development of human right in the international system. It will explore the content of the current international human right regime -the "blue" social and political rights and the "red" economic rights, as well as "green" rights to development, a clean environment, and peace. It will explore how rights develop and are propagated and will examine the role of governments, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations in the development of rights thinking. By way of illustration, it will examine the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa and the expansion of women's rights over the last twenty years. A one-credit integrated service learning experience may be offered with this course.

Cross-listed Courses: GWS 405, PSC 405

PGS 406. Modern East Asia. 3 Credit Hours.

This course studies the history of China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with emphasis on their customs and cultures and the impact on them of modernization, imperialism, revolution and war. A seminar project and oral report are required of all students. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 406

PGS 408. Religion,Conflict,Peace/African Context. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to introduce the class to basic questions, patterns, and contemporary issues on religion, justice, and peace in an African context. As such, the course will not be centered on the presentation of a particular narrative, thematic or structural account of the history of the multiple conflict situations in Africa. On the contrary, it is the aim of this course to take a case-study approach to the problems affecting Africa. In the light of the perspectives on Peace and Global Studies Program at Le Moyne College, we shall focus on ethnicity, religion and justice in conflict situation in African problems, it will also seek to acquaint students with how some of the socio-economic, political and religious problems affecting the continent go back to the colonial period.

Cross-listed Courses: REL 400

PGS 409. Self Knowledge,Cosmopolis&Transcendence. 3 Credit Hours.

This course pays close attention to our own historicity. Each participant will make a conscious attempt to be authentic in responding to the question, who am I, and to engage the question of the meaning of their own identity and exsistence in relation to the cosmos, transcendence, and society. The selected readings and pedagogy employed will serve as a maieutic- midwife- in the Socratic sense; inspiring the student to articulate who he or she is, and how she ought to live with others, care for the earth, and collaborate in orginating creative healing social and environmental structures. In this connection we will engage the significance and implications of the following phenomenon: "to equip an animal with intelligence constitutes not only the possibility of culture and of science but also the possibility of every abomination that has occurred in the course of human history.".

Cross-listed Courses: PHL 400

PGS 413. Hst & Memory in Palestin-Israel Conflict. 3 Credit Hours.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 409

PGS 417. Seminar: African History. 3 Credit Hours.

This course introduces students to the development of African historiography. Students will interpret, analyze and critique different methodologies and have the opportunity to pursue their own specific research interests. In addition, this course will also examine the importance of the African oral tradition, European and Arabic travel literature, archeology and anthropology in the intellectual construction of Africa. This course is designed for upper-level history majors and other interested students and will fulfill the requirements of the senior core.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 417, PSC 417

PGS 422. Senior Sem: Phil & Politics, East & West. 3 Credit Hours.

What is the relation between free thought and the society where it originates and is expressed? Is that relation necessarily hostile? Is this hostility a Western phenomena, or is it found in the Eastern traditions as well? Can philosophy and politics ever get along? This seminar is a cross-cultural, comparative study of the relation between philosophy and the political. It is aimed in two directions: "horizontally" - that is, we will read comparatively the founding thinkers in Chinese philosophy (Confucius and his disciples) and their U.S. "disciples" (Emerson, Thoreau) - and "vertically" - that is we will compare the use of Emerson's thought in contemporary U.S. culture with the use of Confucian teaching in contemporary Chinese culture. The seminar will help you decide whether East and West are incommensurable culturally, or whether they share the quarrel between free thought and society - that is, whether it is free thought and society that are fundamentally incommensurable.

Cross-listed Courses: PHL 401

PGS 428. Latin America, Since 1825. 3 Credit Hours.

A study of the nations of Latin America from the independence period to the present. Chief emphasis on Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico: their struggle for political and economic stability, their progressive urbanization and modernization and their relations with each other and with the United States. The Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions and the policy of the United States toward Central America are also covered.

Cross-listed Courses: HST 428

PGS 450. Spanish Women Writers. 3 Credit Hours.

In this course students will explore different aspects related to the literary expression and construction of identity through the study of works by women writers both from Spain and Latin America who practice a variety of genres; autobiography, novel, short story and poetry. Through the analysis of these texts we will derive interdisciplinary discussions related to the construction of gender, sexuality and feminine creativity. We will examine not only the form and the content of the texts, but we will also contextualize the works in their historical, cultural and literary background. Through the use of secondary texts such as paintings, documentaries, musical compositions and film, the students will explore the different forms of art and disciplines that intersect with the texts and project the worldview of each period.

Cross-listed Courses: SPN 450, GWS 360

PGS 452. Anthropology of Globalization. 3 Credit Hours.

This course explores globalization ethnohistorically, ethnographically, and theoretically; illuminates the processes and consequences of globalization for peoples in various circumstances around the world. By investigating the rapid flow of capital, people, goods, images, and ideologies across cultures, societies, and nations, we will pay careful attention to ideas about culture, modernity, tradition, colonialism/post-colonialism, identity change, nationalism/transnationalism, Disapora, the creation of a "global culture," and contemporary global social issues.